Classroom Management: Definition, Concept, Principles of Classroom Management and recommendations by APA

The classroom is one of the places where the teacher-student teaches and receives lessons, where the teacher has to go through a very complex process to make the learning goal a reality. The American Psychological Association (APA) offers eight tips for effective classroom management.

Classroom management is an important part of teaching activities. The role of classroom management in teaching activities is undeniable for the smooth conduct of regular class activities. Such management makes it easier to improve the quality of teaching and learning activities.

What is a classroom?

A classroom is a small unit of any educational institution. Classrooms can be inside the four walls or fences of an institution or outside a specific campus. Theoretically speaking, the classroom of an institution where knowledge is practiced. In the words of various philosophers and educators, ‘the place where knowledge is practiced by teachers and students is called ‘classroom’.

Definition and concept of classroom management

As knowledge is practiced in the classrooms of the institution, especially with the help of teachers, there is a need for proper management. Classroom management is the special kind of management that is required for the smooth conduct of teaching and learning activities in the classroom.

The classroom management is the management that creates a conducive environment for the practice of knowledge through the harmonious behavior of students and teachers.

Classroom management is theoretically and broadly referred to as ‘classroom management’. The class teacher is called the executive officer of management.

According to the specific curriculum, a teacher uses different methods and techniques to help students learn in the classroom. Classroom management is the sum of all the methods and techniques adopted by the teacher in the classroom for teaching students and all the ancillary activities that need to be performed. Classroom management is being taken very seriously in this modern age education system. According to education researchers, the only place to reflect on the positive and expected changes in the education system is the classroom, as different methods are being introduced to improve the quality of education. No matter how much the teacher training and education policy is reformed in the education system, it will have no value if it is not reflected in the teaching process in the classroom.

Classroom management is one of the most important issues in school learning | Photo: Unsplash
Classroom management is one of the most important issues in school learning | Photo: Unsplash

Types of classroom management

Classroom management is mainly divided into two parts—

  1. Physical management
  2. Human management

Here physical management includes all the physical or structural tools and facilities in a classroom; on the other hand, human management includes students’ behaviour and learning capabilities in the question of classroom learning.

Classroom management techniques

The classroom is one of the places where the teacher-student teaches and receives lessons, where the teacher has to go through a very complex process to make the learning goal a reality. Appropriate classroom management is needed to facilitate this complex process.

The American Psychological Association (APA) offers eight tips for effective classroom management. These suggestions are-

  1. Vague rules cannot be used in classroom teaching
  2. Rules that teachers are not willing to use for teaching cannot be used (despite reluctance)
  3. Avoiding all the behaviors that cause chaos in the classroom
  4. Inconsistent behavior cannot be tolerated in the classroom
  5. Students should not be overly harsh or punished in a way that embarrasses them
  6. Corporal punishment cannot be given
  7. ‘Out-of-school suspension’ should be avoided as much as possible
  8. No serious problem of the students can be solved by the teacher alone; in these cases the school authority, parents or professional psychologists or professional educational consultants should be included.

Different educators and researchers expressed differently about different steps or strategies of classroom management. However, teachers will decide which strategy to adopt or which steps to follow in classroom management. Here are some common strategies that are inspired by various theories and articles related to real life and pedagogy.

Principles of classroom management

Six classroom management principles are mentioned below—

1. Concentrate on yourself

The teacher must first pay attention to himself and try to make himself 100% qualified to teach on a particular subject. In addition, as a teacher, you have to make regular efforts to improve your behavior.

2. Relationship development

Focus on developing relationships with students. It is very important to have a good teacher-student relationship in teaching-learning activities. It is not possible to successfully conduct learning activities in a classroom where the distance between the teacher and the student is observed.

3. Rules, regulations and prohibitions

Some rules and limits have to be set for the students in the classroom. For example, when the teacher says, the students will not say, if they want to ask a question immediately, they will raise their hands without saying a word, will not look around, will not embarrass others, will sit in one place every day, will show homework to parents etc. If someone fails to follow rules and prohibitions or other instructions in the classroom, there should be a small punishment, such as warning for the first time, 5 minutes for the second time, 10 minutes for the third time, going to the headmaster’s room for the fourth time. Promise not to fail again or bring a parent the next day (according to school rules).

4. Selection of teaching methods

In teaching and learning, the teacher will choose the method in which he is most proficient. To refrain from teaching any subject in the classroom without knowing it well or without proper preparation or if you are not confident. However, the method or strategy to be chosen should be student-centered and each student should be included in the curriculum.

5. Don’t talk about irrelevant things

It is often seen that the teacher gives some special examples to make the teaching activities easier. But to give that example, you don’t go back to the main text or a lot of time is wasted. Again, many people unnecessarily introduce some irrelevant topics for humor which is inappropriate. This creates noise in the classroom and impedes learning; Sometimes this noise becomes harmful to other classrooms located nearby.

5. Encouragement and rewards

The teacher should be commended if the students achieve something. Praise from the teacher increases the interest and morale of the students. Praise is also important in developing teacher-student relationships. So students need to be encouraged to be interested in learning or lessons. This interest can be further enhanced if the teacher occasionally arranges some rewards in recognition of the success of the students. This award may be weekly, monthly or as the teacher wishes. Such rewards would not be too expensive financially; It can also be a pen or pencil for 5 rupees. Receiving a reward from a teacher is a different kind of reward for students, no matter what the cost. ‘Encouraging and rewarding’ can be a very nice strategy in classroom management.

6. Participation of parents

Classroom management becomes easier if the parents or legitimate parents of the students can participate in the teaching-learning activities or process. If it is possible to regularly inform parents about students’ homework, progress or deterioration in learning, or other appropriate matters, or at least make sure that the parent is watching the daily homework, on the one hand it will be much easier to achieve learning outcomes and on the other hand classroom management will be easier.

The above six strategies can be considered as the principles of classroom management. According to APA, there are eight classroom management principles, but some educators or educationists say that there are five principles for classroom management. In fact, classroom management principles can be varied as each teacher is different.

Eight recommendations for teachers in classroom management by American Psychologist Association (APA)

  1. Do not use vague rules.
  2. Do not have rules that you are unwilling to enforce.
  3. Do not ignore student behaviors that violate school or classroom rules (they will not go away).
  4. Do not engage in ambiguous or inconsistent treatment of misbehavior.
  5. Do not use overly harsh or embarrassing punishments or punishments delivered without accompanying support.
  6. Do not use corporal punishment.
  7. Avoid out-of-school suspension whenever possible.
  8. Do not try to solve problems alone if you have serious concerns about a student. Refer to your school psychologist or special education professional.

(These are mentioned above as well)

Hope, this article will help you to understand classroom management. If you have any questions, please send me a text message on Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, or LinkedIn.

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Md. Mizanur Rahaman Mizan
Md. Mizanur Rahaman Mizan aka Mizanur R. Mizan is a freelance writer from Bangladesh who has interests in teacher-education, research, literature, international affairs, history, and sports. Mizan likes watching different kinds of films and listening to pop and classical songs. Follow him on ResearchGate or join him on other social media.
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